He is with you and he will be in you: The Spirit, the believer, and the glorification of Jesus
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Were OT saints indwelt by the Holy Spirit? This dissertation seeks an answer from John's Gospel. The thesis here is that John 14:17c, "He is with you, and he will be in you," encapsulates the Bible's description of the relationship between the Spirit and the believer in the Old and New Covenants. In chapter 1 the different positions taken on this question are surveyed. The five actual positions and one alleged position are illustrated with quotations. Not all equate regeneration and indwelling. None think the Spirit had nothing to do with OT saints. Chapter 2 contends that the OT does not present its faithful as indwelt by the Spirit. Covenant mediators have the Spirit, but the Spirit distinguishes and empowers them. God dwells among his people in the tabernacle/temple, but he does not dwell in each believer. The outpouring of the Spirit passages point to the future, saying nothing about the experience of Old Covenant believers. Chapter 3 exegetes the Spirit passages in John. Chapter 4 argues that John 7:39 will not permit the inference that OT saints were indwelt. This chapter lays out the OT expectation of a Spirit-anointed Messiah who inaugurates the age to come. John presents Jesus as the fulfillment of this hope, and Jesus ministers the Spirit to his people. Chapter 5 shows that regeneration and indwelling are not equivalent in John. John presents Jesus as the replacement of the temple. Jesus is the locus of God's presence and the place where sin is dealt with. Once Jesus fulfills all sacrifice, God can take up residence in a temple where no sacrifices are offered. Jesus confers temple status on those who believe in him. When Jesus ascends, believers become the locus of God's presence with authority to forgive and retain sin, i.e., they are the new temple. Chapter 6 concludes and summarizes. OT saints were regenerate but not indwelt. The OT does not claim its faithful were indwelt, and the NT says they were not (John 7:39). Under the Old Covenant God's dwelling was the temple. In the New Covenant God dwells in believers.