Christ is God Over All: Romans 9:5 in the Context of Romans 9-11
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This dissertation examines Paul's statement in Romans 9:5 within the context of Romans 9-11. The thesis of the dissertation is that in the Christological passages in Romans 9-11, Paul spoke of Jesus in a manner that suggests that in Romans 9:5 he meant that Christ is God over all, that is, the God of Israel. In addition, the dissertation argues that the confession that Jesus is God over all is the fundamental confession that must be made by Israel for salvation. Chapter 1 considers the history of the discussion of New Testament Christology during the last century, and suggests that the question of whether any Palestinian Jew could refer to Jesus as God or even as Lord is the proper background against which the discussion of Paul's intent in Romans 9:5 must be undertaken. Chapter 2 undertakes an in-depth exegetical study of the syntax of Romans 9:5 and argues that the syntax is best understood as identifying Jesus as God. Chapter 3 acknowledges and answers objections from outside Romans 9:5 that Paul as a monotheistic Jew would not identify Jesus as God. Similarly, chapter 4 answers objections that Paul would not refer to Jesus as God in Romans 9:5 because he does not so identify Jesus elsewhere. Chapter 5 considers the importance of Paul's identification of Christ as the stone of stumbling and the end of the law in Romans 9:30-10:4, especially for how he understood Jesus. Chapter 6 argues that in Romans 10:5-13, Paul understood Jesus as the referent of the one on whom all call for salvation, assigning to Jesus an Old Testament reference to YHWH as the one who could save. Chapter 7 argues there is no separate way of salvation for Israel and that Jesus is YHWH, the redeemer from Zion, which Israel must join Gentiles in recognizing.
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